Up today, the threats of information leakage become more and more unordinary. The so-called “attack” at such directions, creates a whole range of difficulties of their detection. For their detection, we offer you a complex approach to the solution of the problem of data leakage. By identifying the threat, detection of it using a specified device, and further protection of the sensitive information. Main reason industrial (economic) espionage – the desire for implementation of competitive advantages as the most important factor of achievement success in the market economies. Extracted information allows you to be aware of Affairs of competitors, use their scientific and technical achievements and final account to make the most rational management decisions. Economic espionage can be implemented for seizing markets, counterfeiting of goods, discrediting or economic suppression of competitors, the breakdown of negotiations on the conclusion of contracts, blackmail individuals, etc. Often intelligence events are held competitors using special technical means of secret receipt of information (means unspoken visual surveillance, covert acoustic control, covert retrieval of information from communication channels, etc.). From illegal surreptitious listening (spying) to generally not insured nobody. And natural is interest economic entity in saving your own trade secret.
In this publication, we are going to review the new devices from ST line of products, that in cooperation create a detection kit and test their technical abilities of detection various types of data leakage channels.
Data leakage channels
Speech information – is a voice apparatus of a human being.
Voice apparatus of the human being is a primary source of acoustic fluctuations, which present themselves as disturbance of air in shape of wave compression and extension (longitudinal waves).
Under the influence of acoustic fluctuations in the enclosing building constructions and engineered communications of the premise, in which the source of speech information is, vibrational fluctuations appear. In such manner, in its original state speech signal is present in the room, in a form of acoustic and vibro-acoustic fluctuations. Different converters of acoustic and vibro acoustic fluctuations are a secondary source. They are speakers, telephones, microphones, accelerometers and other devices. Dependently from the distribution environment of speech signals and their interception methods, technical channels of information leakage can be divided in to acoustic, vibrational, acoustoelectronic, opto-electrical and parametric.
Let us review these channels in detail.
PART 1. Review of data leakage channels , types of eavesdropping devices and their unmasking features
ACOUSTIC CHANNELS - In acoustic channels of information, the distribution environment of speech signals is air, and for their interception high-sensitivity microphones, special pointed microphones are being used, which are connected with special miniature transmitters. Autonomous devices, constructively connected microphones and transmitters are called embedded devices of speech information interception. Intercepted by an embedded device „BUG“ can be transmitted through radio channel, electrical power lines, optical (IR) channel, connected lines of auxiliary means, outsider conductors, engineer communications in ultra-sound frequencies diapason, telephone lines with call from outside telephone client. Reception of information, transmitted by embedded device, is being done, to the special reception devices, working in according diapason of wave lengths. Usage of portable dictaphones and embedded devices requires penetration into the monitored room. Only if there is no possibility to use the directed microphone for interception of speech information.
VIBRO-ACOUSTIC CHANNELS – In vibro-acoustic channels of information leakage the distribution environment of speech signals are building constructions( walls, floors, ceilings) and engineered communications (heating systems, ventilation shachts and so on). For interception of speech signals, vibro-sensors (accelerometers) are being used. Vibro sensor connected to the electronic amplifier is called an electronic stethoscope. Electronic stethoscope enables the listening to the speech using head phones and recording to the dictaphone. Through vibro-acoustic channel interception of information using embedded devices is also possible. For transmission of information radio channel is used and the devices are called radio stethoscopes. Also embedded devices with transmission of information through optical channel in the near infrared wavelength diapason and ultrasound devices, are being used (in the engineered communications).
ACOUSTOELCTRONIC CHANNELS - Acoustoelectronic channels of information leakage appear using, transformations of acoustic signals in to electronic. Some elements of main technical tools and systems, transformers, induction rolls, electromagnets of secondary electro casts, telephone ring bells and so on, have the ability to change its parameters (capacity, inductivity, resistance) under the influence of acoustic field, created by the origin of the speech signal. Main technical tools and systems can have acoustoelectrical converters. Some types of fire alarms and security detectors, relaying network loudspeakers and so on. The interception of acoustoelectric fluctuations is made through connection lines to main technical tools and systems using high-sensitivity low frequency amplifier.
OPTIC-ELECTORNIC (LASER) CHANNEL - Optic-electronic (laser) channel of speech information leakage is made by irradiating using laser beam, of the surface of the reflective surfaces of the premises (window glass, mirrors and so on). The reflected laser emissions are modulated at the amplitude and faze, and received by the laser emission receiver, when modulated speech information can be acquired for interception of which complex laser systems are being used.
ACOUSTOELECTROMAGNETIC CHANNEL (Parametric channel) – Acousto-electromagnetic or as it is also called Parametric information leakage channel, appears in result of the influence of acoustic field to the elements of high frequency generators. As a result of such cables in the induction element (dimension between loops), drossels, places between the air condensator plates and so on., which can result in changes of the parameters of the high frequency signal, for example, modulation of the information signal, high frequency fluctuations can be intercepted and detected by the means of radio surveillance.
Parametric channel of information leakage can be made using “high frequency irradiation “of the premise, where semi-active embedded devices, having elements, some parameters of which (for example: quality and resonance frequency of the voluminous resonator) changes according to the changes of the acoustic (speech) signal. For interception of information through this channel besides the embedded device, special transmitter with directed antenna and receiver, are needed.
Types Of Eavesdropping Devices (Bugs):
1. Radio wireless microphone
2. Infrared transmitter
3. TV-camera with radio channel for information Transmission
4. Wire high-frequency transmitter
5. Wire type TV-camera
6. Low-frequency wired dynamic type microphone
7. Low-frequency wired electret type microphone
8. Autonomic (offline) TV-recorder
9. Dictaphone (voice recorder)
10. Police mode of PBX and VoIP phones
Bug’s Unmasking Features
1. Semiconductor element
2. Metal element
3. Optical element (lens)
4. Heterogeneity in the wireline
5. Nonlinearity in the wireline
6. Voltage in the wireline
7. Electromagnetic field
8. Bug heating
9. Low-frequency signal in the wireline
10. High-frequency signal in the wireline
11. High-frequency signal in the airwaves
12. The signal in the infrared range
13. HF traffic in the wireline, when the handset is laid.